Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Amistad Review :: essays papers

Amistad Review Steven Spielberg's "Amistad" is centered on the legal status of Africans caught and brought to America on a Spanish slave ship. The Africans rise up and begin a mutiny against their captors on the high seas and are brought to trial in a New England court. The court must decide if the Africans are actually born as slaves or if they were illegally brought from Africa. If the Africans were born as slaves then they would be guilty of murder, but if their being brought here from Africa is illegal, they had the right to defend themselves. This was not such a simple issue since the slave trade had been banned by treaties at the time of the Amistad incident in 1839. The movie starts on board the Amistad. On the ship the leader of the Africans, Cinque, frees himself from his chains and frees the rest of his tribe. They slaves are being taken from a Havana slave market to another destination in Cuba. The two men who bought them are spared, and promise to take the slaves back to Africa. Instead, the Amistad is guided into US waters, and the Africans end up being tried in a New England court. Luckily, it is a Northern court. If the slaves had ended up in the South they would have no chance of getting off. The slaves are first defended by Roger Baldwin a well-off real estate lawyer who bases the case on property law. Only slowly does Baldwin come to see his clients, the slaves, as human beings. Also, two Boston abolitionists, an immigrant called Tappan, and a former slave named Joadson are in the defense. Together these men work to try to free the 53 slaves aboard the Amistad. After the slaves are tried and freed at the New England district court, they must go to the Supreme Court. In the Supreme Court John Quincy Adams, former president, who is fighting for the freedom of all men, defends them. He gives an 11 minute speech and persuades the Supreme Court to free the slaves as individuals because all men are free under the Declaration of Independence. The slaves are freed once and again and choose to return to their homeland. However, Cinque discovers that his village has been destroyed and the rest of his family has already been sold into slavery. This is where Cinque emerges as a powerful character. He was once a free farmer living in peace with his now lost wife and family. Amistad Review :: essays papers Amistad Review Steven Spielberg's "Amistad" is centered on the legal status of Africans caught and brought to America on a Spanish slave ship. The Africans rise up and begin a mutiny against their captors on the high seas and are brought to trial in a New England court. The court must decide if the Africans are actually born as slaves or if they were illegally brought from Africa. If the Africans were born as slaves then they would be guilty of murder, but if their being brought here from Africa is illegal, they had the right to defend themselves. This was not such a simple issue since the slave trade had been banned by treaties at the time of the Amistad incident in 1839. The movie starts on board the Amistad. On the ship the leader of the Africans, Cinque, frees himself from his chains and frees the rest of his tribe. They slaves are being taken from a Havana slave market to another destination in Cuba. The two men who bought them are spared, and promise to take the slaves back to Africa. Instead, the Amistad is guided into US waters, and the Africans end up being tried in a New England court. Luckily, it is a Northern court. If the slaves had ended up in the South they would have no chance of getting off. The slaves are first defended by Roger Baldwin a well-off real estate lawyer who bases the case on property law. Only slowly does Baldwin come to see his clients, the slaves, as human beings. Also, two Boston abolitionists, an immigrant called Tappan, and a former slave named Joadson are in the defense. Together these men work to try to free the 53 slaves aboard the Amistad. After the slaves are tried and freed at the New England district court, they must go to the Supreme Court. In the Supreme Court John Quincy Adams, former president, who is fighting for the freedom of all men, defends them. He gives an 11 minute speech and persuades the Supreme Court to free the slaves as individuals because all men are free under the Declaration of Independence. The slaves are freed once and again and choose to return to their homeland. However, Cinque discovers that his village has been destroyed and the rest of his family has already been sold into slavery. This is where Cinque emerges as a powerful character. He was once a free farmer living in peace with his now lost wife and family.

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Analysis of Sredni Vashtar and Such a Pretty Little Picture Essay

_Sredni Vashtar_ and _Such a Pretty Little Picture_ are short stories whose main heroes share a common character trait: they both dream about a world where they can finally be free. Both of them live in a reality in which they do not feel happy and they use their imagination to escape from their forlorn position. The two protagonists are Conradin, a ten-year-old boy who is diagnosed with a fatal illness and Mr. Wheelock, who has a seemingly perfect life but deep down he wants nothing more but escape. While Conradin is a prisoner of his own illness, Mr. Wheelock is cornered by the expectations of society. â€Å"Conradin was ten years old, and the doctor had pronounced his professional opinion that the boy would not live another five years.† – with this opening sentence starts the story of Conradin. He is a boy who carries a huge burden which should not be beard by someone so young. He lives with his aunt, Mrs. De Ropp, who takes pleasure in forbidding Conradin everything that might bring him joy. Mrs. De Ropp is portrayed as a cold and cruel lady who treats Conradin poorly and likes thwarting him under the guise of taking care of him. The only safe haven for Conradin is a little shed where he keeps his two pets: a Houdan hen, which he considers a dear friend and a ferret, whom he fears and idealizes as a god, Sredni Vashtar. Each night, Conradin worships and prays to the â€Å"hutch-god† and begs him: â€Å"Do one thing for me, Sredni Vashtar.†. He does not specify what he wants, because gods are supposed to know one`s deepest desire. One day Mrs. De Ropp f inds out about Conradin`s visits to the shed and goes to investigate, but she never emerges again. In the last scene the blood-covered ferret appears and Conradin sighs in relief to finally be set free. (_Sredni Vashtar_, Saki) Mr. Wheelock appears to be a perfect husband with a perfect family and perfect life. But it is just the surface. He is dissatisfied with his life, his wife often makes fun of him in public and questions his masculinity and his daughter is an ill-favored child with whom he has no strong bond. He hears about a man who for the last twenty years â€Å"had gone to the city on the 8:12, sitting in the same seat in the same car, and every evening he had  gone home to his wife on the 5:17, sitting in the same seat in the same car†, but one day, instead of going home on the train as usual, he paused, walked off, and was never seen again. Mr. Wheelock starts to fantasize about running away and never look back, but he always comes up with something that delays his plan. At the end he remains with the one thing he can properly do – cutting the hedge while daydreaming about the breaking out from his monotone life, because â€Å"clipping the hedge was one of the few domestic dutie s that Mr. Wheelock could be trusted with†. (_Such a Pretty Little Picture_, Parker, 1995) Conradin and Mr. Wheelock are similar in a sense that both of them are suppressed by a dominant woman. Conradin`s life is dictated by the prohibitions set by Mrs. De Ropp. It is not enough that this little boy is severely sick, but he has to put up with a cold-hearted guardian, who instead of giving her nephew the little things that would make his final years tolerable, takes all the joy from his life. Mr. Wheelock endures his wife`s constant mocking and deep inside yields to the fate of being an insignificant member of his family. However, while Conradin is tried by his aunt every step of the way, he does not give up and believes that Sredni Vashtar will give him what he desires the most: the death of Mrs. De Ropp. Although he does not actively do anything, Conradin is not a quitter and continually begs his fantasy god to help him. Mr. Wheelock, on the contrary, is rewarded with an opportunity to change his lifestyle and flee, but instead of snatching at the chance, he finds excuses against it, e.g.: people might think, he left for improper reasons, like for another woman – which shows how much Mr. Wheelock cares about the opinion of the society – or that he has to leave his job which â€Å"he did not particularly dislike†. The ability to make decisions is the main difference between these two characters. Mr. Wheelock is too much of a coward to take the risk and abandon his comfortable but boring life and he can only thank to himself for the situation he is in, because he was the one who d ecided to marry Adelaide. Conradin, however, is a young child who finds himself alone in the world and has no other choice but to subordinate himself to the whim of Mrs. De Ropp. BIBLIOGRAPHY: http://faculty.tnstate.edu/lpowers/Short%20Story/Saki%20Shredni%20Vashtar%20Bull%20Open%20Window.pdf PARKER, D.: _Such a Pretty Little Picture_, Penguin Books, London, 1995, ISBN: 978-1-101-14403-9

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Organizational Structure Of Organization Structure

-1. Early in the course we discussed bureaucracy. We said this form of organization was the starting point for understanding all modern organizations. Based on the text and other class readings develop an essay that begins with a brief definition of bureaucracy and the reason why this form of organization remains the cornerstone of organization structure. Then, give three reasons why the principles of bureaucracy may sometimes be dysfunctional for an organization. Conclude your essay with a discussion of three principles that might be used for designing organizational structure that would avoid bureaucratic dysfunction. Express each principle as a complete sentence, and with each briefly describe why you find the principle to be important in the design of organization structure. Number the principles as: P1, P2 P3. RQ-1 Bureaucracy is part of the organizational structure that implements a hierarchy of management. It brings managers together with various skills, experiences, and goals (Bateman, Snell, Konopaske, p. 34). Bureaucracy operates with rules and regulations. This structure is considered the ideal structure for businesses to keep controls in place and every business must have structure. This is why bureaurcracy has remained the corner stone of organizational structure. Although the bureaucracy approach is considered good, it does have its dysfunctions. The three reasons that makes bureaucracy dysfunctional are: 1. The red tape which could mean there areShow MoreRelatedOrganizational Structure Of An Organization1585 Words   |  7 Pagesimportant things to run a business smoothly is an appropriate organizational structure in order to manage workers effectively, have maximum productivity and achieve the objectives set by the company. The structure of an organization including the method that an organization employs to delineate lines of communication, policies, authority and responsibilities. It determines the extent and nature of how leadership is disseminated within the organization. It is the method to ensure effective channels of communicationRead MoreOrganizational Structure Of An Organization Essay1629 Words   |  7 Pages1.2 At least two different organizational structures are identified, described, and compared in terms of their design principles. Ans: - 1. Organisational Structure – It is a structure which is used to elaborate ranking in an organisation. It is also define as an organizational structure which defines how activities such as task portion, division and guidance are directed towards the achievement of organizational purposes. 2. There are different types of organisationalRead MoreOrganizational Structure Of An Organization1130 Words   |  5 Pagescompany to be productive and advance in the business environment. Organizational structure determines how roles, power, and responsibilities are assigned, controlled, coordinated and how information flows between the different levels of management. In an organizational workforce environment, there are several levels of management, such as managers, supervisors, team leads and coordinators. Their responsibilities are to know why organizational changes are necessary and they must effectively communicateRead MoreOrganizational Structure Of An Organization1085 Words   |  5 PagesAn organizational structure is a composition that specifies a company s hierarchical structure. There are various kinds of conformations that organizations can choose to build their business around. The organizational structure exemplifies the way in which control and business affairs ha ve been appointed within the organization. Organizational structure encompasses the design of an organization though people positioning and responsibilities in order for organizational goals can be reached. SomeRead MoreOrganizational Structure Of The Organization1163 Words   |  5 PagesOver the years, most organizations have been urged to consider changing their organizational structure so as to promote employee flexibility as well as empower them with the discretion of making decisions. As a result, organizations across the world have resorted to de-layering or flattening their organizational structures with the hopes of achieving employee flexibility and improving the operations of the organization as well. De-layering or flattening, in this case, refers to the elimination ofRead MoreOrganizational Structure And The Organization789 Words   |  4 PagesOrganizations are founded on the basis that they want to accomplish a goal. Organizations differ from one another in variou s ways, and that is stated in their mission and vision statement as well as their goals. Every organization has a set pattern that helps to establish the structure on which it will accomplish the goal of the business. According to Prodanciuc, organizational structure is the fundamental concept that helps the organization be organized and administrated. The organizing takes placeRead MoreOrganizational Structure Of An Organization1361 Words   |  6 Pages1. Introduction An organization is defined as a group of people who work together in an organized way for shared purpose. When people come together, they can either compliment one another or potentially create conflicts and disagreements in the course of pursuing common objectives with their differentiated experiences, perceptions and knowledge. Managing an organization involves putting a structure to the business so that managers can manage, supervise and coordinate its people and organization’sRead MoreOrganizational Structure Of Starbucks Organization Structure1203 Words   |  5 Pages Organizational structure Starbucks organization structure is unique just like it coffee, it is customized to the company’s needs and abilities. However, the fundamentals of the structure come of a mix of other basic organization structures. One of the key reasons the company is full of success is because it is able to capitalize on the matrix form, the strategy works by involving all necessarily factors and the collaborate to form a functioning unit. The matrix form is a type of merging mixRead MoreOrganizational Structure Of An Organization1718 Words   |  7 Pagesintroduction This report is going to concentrate on the structure of an organization because, like Jay Lorsch said: organization structure is management’s formal and explicit attempts to indicate to organizational members what is expected of them. In his words, ‘this was management’s attempt to draw a map of whom they want to do what’ (Lorsch, 1977, p. 3) .So a mature and scientific organizational structure is an essential factor that a successful organization requires. I got an internship in a law officeRead MoreOrganizational Structure Of The Organization3890 Words   |  16 Pagesto set up the structure and policies to suit the changes of the market. One of the essential and most important factors to achieve that is the organizational structure. Organizational structure theory is especially useful for people who manage organizations, or who aspire to do so in the future. It enables the manager to see that his or her organization and its problems are rarely wholly unique. Usually, much of value can be learned from examining the behavior of other organizations in broadly similar

Thursday, December 19, 2019

Manufacturing Beauty Essay - 949 Words

Cindy Jackson Cindy Jackson holds the world record for most cosmetic procedures; she has been â€Å"nipped, tucked, and sliced open† over 50 times since her first procedure in 1988 (Rachel, 2012). A quote by The Times asserting, â€Å"No one knows more about cosmetic enhancement and anti-ageing than Cindy Jackson. She is living proof of her unique expertise† headlines her self-titled website. While Jackson’s website flaunts her many cosmetic successes, it also lists her as a member of Mensa, The High IQ Society since 1977. Additionally, visitors to the site learn that Jackson, who received her first Barbie Doll at the age of six, led a sheltered life and felt like a misfit. The Barbie Doll supported her fantasies of an alternative destiny†¦show more content†¦Most significantly, her imperfect sense of self is the result of surrounding culture. According to the Myers text, self-concept is one’s answers to the question, â€Å"Who am I?† Certainly, the responses will vary according to social roles and personality traits. Social roles associate external or objective aspects of who we are and personality traits link internal or affective aspects of who we are. Jackson’s beliefs that attractive individuals got preferential treatment undoubtedly diminished her self-concept, leading her on a journey in search of perfect beauty. The definition of self-esteem is a person’s overall sense of worth (Myers, 2010). Contributors to low self-esteem include loneliness, depression, social anxiety, and alienation; Jackson’s isolated upbringing directly relates to alienation. Self-presentation, according to Myers, refers to â€Å"wanting to present a desired image both to an external audience (other people) and to an internal audience† (Myers, 2010). Jackson’s website clearly illustrates her desire to create favorable impressions. Conclusively, Jackson’s claim of redefining the meanin g of aging and her belief that because nature â€Å"messes with her, there is nothing wrong with messing with nature† indicates that she has an over-powering self-fulfilling prophecy, the belief that leads to its own fulfillment (Myers, 2010). Physical Attractiveness Stereotype The physical-attractive stereotype assumes thatShow MoreRelatedThe Museum Of Fine Arts1511 Words   |  7 Pagesexquisite decorative patterns on the vessel (Stokstad, 119). In addition, since the red figure vessels take less time in manufacturing, the red figure gives sculptors and painters more freedom in designing the pattern. Through the development of the red figure technique, and the outward appearance of the bowl used for mixing wine and water, we can see that people are seeking art and beauty in their daily life. The second item is called the incense burner. Like the mixing bowl, it was used frequentlyRead MoreThe Museum Of Fine Arts1523 Words   |  7 Pagesexquisite decorative patterns on the vessel (Stokstad, 119). In addition, since the red-figure vessels take less time in manufacturing, the red figure gives sculptors and painters more freedom in designing the pattern. Through the development of the red-figure technique and the outward appearance of the bowl used for mixing wine and water, we can see that people are seeking art and beauty in their daily life. The second item is called the incense burner. Like the mixing bowl, it was used frequentlyRead MoreTimbuk2 Case732 Words   |  3 Pagessame quality, features and functions. Since these bags are more complex to build and require more labor and a variety of different machines (more expensive) to produce these products, to keep the prices lower for the consumer, outsourcing the manufacturing of these bags is necessary. Putting up factories in China makes labor costs cheaper, though the design was still built in San Francisco. 2. The assembly line in China and San Francisco have similarities and differences when comparing theRead MoreThe Issues Raised by the Growth of Manchester and the Reaction to These Issues over the Course of the 19th Century1606 Words   |  7 Pagesfor more homes and factories to be built in order to support the growing population. With the constructing of more factories to support the rise in population came the growth of industry and manufacturing. The growth of the city, along with these factories, brought about several issues other than the manufacturing of valuable goods. The overcrowding from the population growth and the smog, smoke, and other toxic waste from the factories brought about the issue of pollution and bad living conditionsRead MoreThe Free Waters Act Of 20151319 Words   |  6 Pagesa deadline for when. Some consumers responded by researching their products and avoiding products with microbeads. Overall, the campaign informed the population of the microbeads and their negative effects. The most important stakeholder is the beauty and personal care products’ manufactures already eliminated Microbeads in their products. Since Microbeads are widely use in face and body cleanser and toothpaste to exfoliate and smooth out the skin. Since the Microbead was banned, the manufacturersRead MoreThe Fashion Industry And Manufacturing Process842 Words   |  4 Pages And as the item(s) gain life, each works its way through the many facets of the manufacturing process. The Fashioned Body: Fashion, Dress, Modern Social Theory notes that â€Å"to understand fashion, it is necessary to go beyond the discussion of pure aesthetics. It is a chain of [events], which are industrial, economic and cultural, as well as aesthetic† (p. 220). 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The production of tangible things planned to be sold or leased for final use or consumption or the production of tangible things pursuant to a contract with the Federal Government. This can be done by mechanical, physical or chemical means. Plants, factories and mills that use power-driven machinery and equipment are typical in the manufacturing industry. However, it also includes home-based businesses that make hand-craftedRead MoreThe Production Option (Pob Sba Guideline)4598 Words   |  19 PagesAlthough businesses such as banks, insurance companies and internet service providers do not supply goods that can be see n and held, they do have to organize their resources to meet customers demands as completely as possible. In the Caribbean, the manufacturing of goods for sale is carried on in houses, small establishments or factories. The making of goods in houses or small business establishments can be called small-scale production, for example bread, cakes, embroideries, leather sandals, chairsRead MoreManaging Production Ramp-Up in Manufacturing Networks14551 Words   |  59 PagesManaging Production Ramp-Up in Manufacturing Networks Abstract Production and manufacturing companies today in a bid to achieve time to market and time to volume makes use of production ramp-up. Effective and rapid returns in investing in newly manufactured product to maintain cost and volume as well as considerable manufacturing quality. Also, this research is aimed at achieving cost effective and market potentials by implementing ramp-up production process in manufacturing industries. Through production

Wednesday, December 11, 2019

I Corinthians Essay Example For Students

I Corinthians Essay I Corinthians, the seventh book of the New Testament, was written by Paul to get across that Jesus is alive (15:3-18) and that we will be resurrected (15:35-38), among other things. Today there is no dispute that Paul is the author of I Corinthians. Both external and the internal evidence for the Pauline authorship are so strong that those who attempt to show the apostle was not the writer succeed chiefly in proving their own incompetence as critics.1 As internal evidence, Paul identifies himself as the author in 1 Corinthians 1:1 and 16:21. External evidence of Paul writing this letter is supported by people such as Clement of Rome (c. 95-97) and Augustine (c. 400). The letter was written to the people of Corinth. Corinth was a strategically located Roman city on the main land route between East and West and was the crossroads for several sea routes. Corinth was famous for its intellectual and material prosperity and was honored with being the capitol of Ancaia. It also became famou s for its corruption. Paul began his ministry there on his second missionary journey. He converted many influential people in Corinth, thus he stayed for a year and a half. Most likely, Paul left Corinth in the fall of AD 51. Paul returned to Corinth on his third trip to Asia, c. fall, AD 52. Paul then wrote this letter from Ephesus while on his third trip to Asia.Paul wrote the letter several years after his initial departure from Corinth in the fall of AD 51-52. The letter was written before the beginning of the summer since Paul intended to leave Ephesus after Pentecost. It was also written before winter since Paul wanted to come to them and spend the winter. Paul wrote the letter four or five years after his initial departure from Corinth.Paul had many points that he wanted to get across in I Corinthians. For instance, the purpose of the letter was to address problems in the local churches of Corinth. Also, to counter worldly wisdom with Spiritual wisdom, and to answer questions that Corinthians had brought to Paul. (7:1,25 8:1) Furthermore, he wanted to deal with the several moral problems and the divisions that had formed as people had divided into fan-clubs and were proclaiming themselves followers of Paul, Apollo, Peter or Christ.During this time the Corinthian church had many problems. Most of these problems were the result of pride and placing so much emphasis on social status. In Corinth there was a lack of church discipline and an abuse of the Christian liberty. Paul dealt with these problems one by one, but the pinnacle of Pauls argument is in chapter 13 where he emphasizes the importance of love. Love of others is incompatible with pride and is to be the fundamental principle that guides all actions.I Corinthians points out to me what I should do, and not do to become a good Christian. For instance, Paul lists many things that you should not be in 6:9-11. Paul also pointed out that Jesus in fact did rise again, as he said he would, in 15:3-8. He states that Jesus came to him, and this gives us evidence that Jesus stayed true to the Scriptures. Furthermore, Paul tells us in 15:35-38 that we will be resurrected.

Tuesday, December 3, 2019

Police service transformation A critical evaluation of implementing transformational leadership in the homicide division

Introduction The literature review is on Police service transformation evaluating the transformation leadership and suitability of transformational leadership in the Homicide Division. In the Police Service, other styles of leadership have prevailed compared to the model of transformational leadership.Advertising We will write a custom dissertation sample on Police service transformation: A critical evaluation of implementing transformational leadership in the homicide division specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Different scholars have argued differently on the appropriateness of transformational leadership in the Police Service, especially in the homicide division a department that deals with cases of homicide on daily basis. This review will examine different arguments on transformational leadership, which are significant in the study. It will evaluate how to integrate transformational leadership into the division and analyse fact ors that hamper the transformational leadership and critically assess the effectiveness of implementation, analyse the efficiency of Transformational Leadership, its implication on improvement of organisational performance and make recommendations. Theoretical perspective Transformational leadership is a leadership style that involves working together with others (Bass 1998). It creates a situation where the people involved participate in the process of leadership (Bass 1998). The transformation leadership model advocates for distribution of power, such that everyone participates in leadership (Avolio 1999). This means that a transformational leader is the one who is able to engage the effort of others to attain a common objective (Avolio 1999). Transformational leadership involves the ability to communicate the objectives and goals to everyone involved to elicit their support (Bass 1997). The transformational leader must motivate the people involved and communicate the objectives e ffectively to encourage teamwork (Bass 1999). Transformational leadership is team-oriented hence achievement of the objectives relies not on individual but on the collective effort (Chen 1989). The Homicide Division focused on the transactional theories of leadership where power belongs to one individual who has the responsibility of using that power to ensure that there is achievement (Meese 2004). This authoritative model of leadership empowers the individual to punish those who disobey orders while rewarding those who are obedient (Vick 2000).Advertising Looking for dissertation on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many cases of discernment among the police officers result from this style as it makes the subordinates resented because it leaves no avenue for the juniors to express their opinions or ideas about achievement of objectives (Vick 2000). The experiences of juniors may transcend improper investig ations of homicide. This is because achievement of objectives requires cooperation of both the leader and the juniors. The cooperation can be forced or earned. In transactional model of leadership, the tasks require cooperation of both the leader and subordinates (Meese 2004). It is imperative to note the difference between management and leadership (Laurie 1997). Management is the process of organizing and planning human resource whereas leadership is the process of inspiring the people involved in the process (Bass 1998). Management is based on the transactional theories of leadership where the leadership is positional and does not go beyond the give and take relationship (Laurie 1997). However, in leadership the relationship between the senior and the subordinates extends beyond the norm of the relationship (Ortmeier 2002). The homicide division of the police service is one of the critical departments in the Police Service as it aims at protecting the sanctity of human life by in vestigating and bringing to justice people who have been involved in murder (Lester 2000). It investigates and arrests suspects of serious crimes so that valuable evidence can help to prove them guilty or not. The homicide division works together with the public as well as other police departments to conduct investigations on serious cases. The department of homicide for instance in London has over 3,000 unit officers who are responsible for investigations while Trinidad has about 1,000 officers (Ortmeier 2003). Law enforcement is usually reactive rather than passive where the police service responds to emergency cases instead of adopting preventive measures (Lester 2000).Advertising We will write a custom dissertation sample on Police service transformation: A critical evaluation of implementing transformational leadership in the homicide division specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Critical thinking and emergency response skills a re vital in the departmental leadership to ensure that the investigations conducted are conclusive and cases solved. This requires the police leadership in the homicide division to be flexible and radical in their operations (Bond 2003). The modern law enforcement as well as investigations on homicide demands the officer to multi-task (Ortmeier 2002). The officer is required to be empathetic to the victims of homicide, counsel the victims as well as act as a bouncer to protect the public. This multi-faces demand flexibility and the police leadership cannot afford to treat the junior officers with the hostility and harshness as they implement their orders if they are going to work effectively (Bond 2003). Use of pressure and threats of transactional model of leadership on officers makes it hard for them to be flexible and perform the tasks expected of them effectively (Avolio Bass 1990). This leads to resentment and cases of police officers attacking their colleagues or seniors. Thi s explains why some of the police officers are suspects or culprits of crimes resulting to low public opinion (Ortmeier 2002). Integrating transformational leadership in the homicide division The following part of review examines how various scholars integrate transformational leadership into the homicide division. This model is not prevalent in the police departments as it calls for sergeants to work together with the constables. This transformational leadership views the leaders as coordinators and motivators of their subordinates (Conger 1991). Their role is to communicate instructions and expectations clearly and motivate the subordinates to achieve or to adhere to the expectations. However, for the model to be effective, it is important to ensure that there is streamlining of certain aspects within the Homicide division to ensure the effectiveness of the necessary changes (Morreale 2003). The first requirement implementing transformational leadership in the department is having organizational transparency (Yukl 1981). This refers to a situation where the division is open to scrutiny by the shareholders.Advertising Looking for dissertation on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Transparency in leadership sanctions the subordinate knowledge of their seniors’ actions that generates trust (Bass Steidmeier 1999). Openness calls for accountability of those in leadership, as they cannot engage in corrupt activities (Morreale 2003). The second consideration when integrating transformational leadership in the homicide division is ensuring that the decisions made are ethical. This is imperative as it enhances trust by the junior officers to decisions made by the leader (Bass Steidlmeier 1999). Ethical decisions are made to benefit the leader and the subordinates (Yukl 1981). They are decisions that are moral and geared towards attaining the set objectives. This means that if the leader cannot take bribes even the juniors are answerable if they take bribes as the leader has the moral authority to apply appropriate measures on the juniors who are found engaging in such activities (Morreale 2003). The transformational leadership in homicide division must ensu re that decisions made have a factual basis eliminating assumptions when conducting investigations (Ortmeier 2002). This leads to procession of cases with insufficient evidence frustrating the junior officers as the situation when cases are referred back for further investigation (Ortmeier 2003). Another imperative aspect in integrating the transformational leadership is effective use of performance appraisals (Sarros 2001). The performance appraisal is important tool of evaluating performance of the officers and capabilities as well as the objectives and expectations that they have met. Appropriate and honest performance appraisal is necessary in motivating the officers to higher performance (Sarros 2001). There is need to have well formulated ways of evaluating the performance (Nissinen 2006). Another important aspect in performance appraisal is ensuring that the junior officers evaluate performance and leadership skills of the seniors. The feedback from these evaluations provides a good insight on areas that need performance appraisal (Ortmeier 2003). Effective leadership requires departure from traditional communication models that advocated for one communication channel where officers were supposed to receive orders but no mechanisms of forwarding their opinions or feedback to the leaders (Griffin Rafferty 2004). The orders come from top to bottom where the leaders at the top control the juniors and direct them to do what their duty requires them. The transformational style of leadership recognises that effective performance requires two-way communication which is imperative in ensuring that there is proper flow of information from one quarter to another (Barge 1994). The two-way communication ensures that everyone participates in the leadership process as well as attainment of the set goals (Meese 2004). This one way communication and dissemination of information may apply using the transactional style of leadership but it is unacceptable and ineffectiv e in the twenty first century when the law enforcement officers are expected to play multiple roles, and have a higher standard of performance than it were in the previous century (Laurie 1997). The public image of officers is undergoing reformation intended to change the public perception of the officers as bullies and project them as partners with the public in maintenance of law and order (Meese 2004). This kind of transformation will ensure that there is growth in the two sectors and appropriate changes incorporate the transformational leadership in the homicide division. The Homicide division will be more effective and ensure speedy investigations of the ongoing homicide cases if the transformational style of leadership takes effect (Ortmeier 2002) Concept Maps Integrating Aspects of transformational leadership in Homicide Division The process of transformational leadership in Homicide division Gaps in the study Though various scholars have studied and delved into the various theories of leadership, there is no conclusive discussion on the most appropriate style of leadership in the leadership cadres of law enforcement. Critics of transactional style of leadership argue that it may be ineffective in law enforcement where authority and power are necessary in enforcing the law otherwise lawbreakers may have their way. This study however intends to look into how the transformational leadership leads to more results and performance in law enforcement (Laurie 1997). 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